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Transactions of the Socicty,










CD er

XIX |, pE.l. ISG ee Jorn. OX. (836 , 674 he 629 ~ ject iheox h-9 6 |




8, line 5 from the bottom dele on.” 5 from ditto, for ‘‘ or” read ‘‘ in.”


12, in the last dimension, for ‘* Palatial’’ read ‘‘ Palatine.”

15, line 14, for ‘“‘ molars” read molar.”

21, 21, 22,

145, line



‘619.2 inches” read ‘¢ 12.2 inches.” “circle” read arch.”

‘‘form” read forms.”

¢ decend lower’’ read ‘* descend lower in.”’ ‘“¢ He Sivalensis” read *‘ H, Sivalensis.” 66 to 30°” read *‘ 20° to 30°.” “margin of foramen” read ‘* margin of the posterior nasal foramen.” & nyal” read frontal”

“uniform” read reniform.”

“but” read not.”

“upper” read lower.”

‘“¢ Nufimenta” read ‘“* Rufimenta.”’

146, note, from Erythrocephala” read Erythroryncha.’”’ 6, for 5” read ‘54.”

157, for ‘* Alaudino” read ‘‘ Alaudine.”

146, line


Fringalanda” read Fringalauda.”’

168, line 11, for Corch”’ read ‘* Concha.”

6 from bottom, for “Couch”? read ‘* Concha.”

4 from bottom, for ‘‘ outer four’? read inner fore.’”’ 6 from bottom, for ‘‘ dares” read ‘‘ nares.”

184, lines 10—11, words former and latter transposed.

169, 173, 180,

186, for subgenus” read ‘‘ genus.” 5 from bottom, after above put and. 2 from bottom, after well put with.

190, line 192,

Lupe: ea iy naan




I. Page

Sivatherium Giganteum, a New Fossil Ruminant Genus from the Valley of the Markanda, in the Sivalik Branch of the Sub-Himalayan Mountains. By Hugh Falconer, M. D., Superintendent Botanical Garden, Saharanpur, and

Captain P. T. Cautley, Superintendent, IDoabiCanalnaccea Oc see ees ees II. Note on the Fossil Crocodile, of the Sivalik Hills. By Captain P. T. Cautley, Superintendent, Doab Camnalira = toc Rabe gat oy aa Ta aac pal <iceairatr iy MURAI ONS fs The Fossil Gharidl of the Sivalik Hills, ..ccceceseeees © sels cies Mekeichs: aieterayeie siete’ IIil.

Note on the Fossil Hippopotamus of the Sivalik Hills. By Hugh Falconer, M. D., Superintendent Botanical Garden, Saharanpur, and Captain P. T. Cautley, Superintendent, Dodb CGA Tees omens etate a clajeccc solace « oieisie Sree wiallovsion ste :

IV. Specimens of the Hippopotamus and other Fossil Genera of the Sub-Himdlayas in the Dadupur Colliction. By Lieutenant H. M. Durand, Engineers, seceore seve


Indication of a New Gmus of the Carnivora, with Description of the Species on which it is founded By B. H. Hodgson, Esq., Resident in Nepal, .........6


Note of the A aes Griseus. By J. T. Pearson, Esquire, Assistant

Surgeon, Curator Mus. As. Soc., sessercccesccsrccsescesccscccevceocces






VIi. Page

Description of three New Species of Paradoxurus, inhabiting the Southern, Central, and Northern Regions of Nepal respectively, with Notices of the Habits and

Structure of the Genus. By B. H. Hodgson, Esq., H. C. Resident in Nepal, 72 VIII.

Sketch of an undescribed Hooded Serpent, with Fangs and Maxillar Teeth.

By Dr. Th. Cantor, 0 vce 'se% davies sos seksi s ef anele Shaistsita’elaveiele stavate'e: elehonevatere co On EX:

Description of Two Genera of the Family of Hamamelidee, Two Species of Podostemon and One Species of Kaulfussia. By William Griffith, Esq., Asst.-Surgeon, Madras Establishment, .... .eccecssceees oa So Mymenre mile Corcamuaet - 94


Note on the Fossil Camel of the Sivalik Hills. By Hugh Falconer, M. D., Super- intendent, Botanical Garden, Sehdranpur, and Captain P. T. Cautley, Superintendent, Dodb Canal, ...0..00 cevcececes hats osc shoves AA eds


Note on the Felis Cristata, a New Fossil Tiger, from the Sivélik Hills. By Hugh Falconer, M. D., Superintendent Botanical Garden, Sehdranpur, and Captain P. T. Cautley, Superintendent, Dodb Canal,.......-2..6. Meee MaMa ore eee hr tata 135


Notices of the Ornithology of Nepal. By B. H. Hodgson, Esq., Resident at

Katmandu; ei os'es ove: ENe lates eryie aieveteieuns Atlee wwe arene Ws elecet efifateie’s ors eile satan ormed XIII.

Note on the Ursus Sivalensis, a New Fossil Species, from the Svalik Hills. By Captain P. T. Cautley, Superintendent, Doab Canal, and Hugh Falconer, M. D., Superintendent, Botanical Garden, Sehdranpur, ....ieccscevecscscee 193


Daily Register of the Tides at Singapore, from the 1st September 1834 to the 31st August 1835, inclusive. Observed by Mr. J. Dias,scsccvecreccecccvcccecwe 201




Indian Cyprinide,” by Mr. John M‘ Clelland, Assistant Surgeon ; Member Asiatic Society, and Corresponding Member of the Zoological, and Entomological Societies of London. 217


Page 239, Line 8 from bottom, for polioxus, read leucerus. Page 270, Line 11 from top, for hetea read petea.

Page 272, Line 7 from bottom,

oles tie ec teanatae d for diliciasus read deliciosus. Page 342, Line 11 from top, s

Page 347, Last line.

Page 279, Line 5 from bottom, for here read where.

Page 281, Line 7 from top, for rupiculus read rupicolus.

Page 285, Line 13 from top, and second from bottom, for pyropterus read pyrropterus. Page 292, Line 6 from bottom, for rasobora, read rasbora.

Page 298, Line 5 from bottom, for widedy read widely.

Page 287, Line 12 from bottom, and

Page 290, Line 3 from top, and for diaphinous read diaphanous.

Page 300, Line 8 from bottom,.

Page 309, Line 1 and

Pee 41) | anes from top, Vio rupecula, read rupicola. Page 314, Line 9 from top, for pyropterus, read pyrropterus. Page 314, Line 6 from top, and

Pere! ia) Tine [3tmiy, Min rupeculus read rupicolus. Page 315, Line 2 from bottom, for Hormay read Hannay.

Page 336, Line 4 from top, and

Pana ars Mane deara tops : for hexagonolepus, read hexagonolepis. Page 342, Line 2 from top, for B. progastus, read Oreinus progastus. Ditto, Line 17 from top, for preceeded, read preceded.

Page 344, Line 10 from bottom, for PZ. 30. read Pl. 39.

Page 398, Line 7 from bottom, for macrouru read macrourus

Page 422, Line 8 from bottom, for acanthopterus read latipinnatus.

Page 452, Line 8 from top, for damyhur read lamghur.

Plate XLV, Four Perilamps is by mistake marked LVI.

Plate LIX last figures right lower corner, for 13 read figure 14.


Page 220, Line 6 from bottom, omit, Mirgul, and insert the following species figured by Buchanan ; Cyprinus chola,

Conchonius, Jogia, Shakra, Barna, Vagra, Borila, Anjana. Q Page 291, Line 11 from bottom, after the words “dorsal and anal small,’’ insert, the former opposite to the | ventrals.”’ | Page 299, Line 4 from top, after the words intestine is short, and’’ insert, “the body”’ Page 345, After O. Macutatrus, J. M. insert Pl. 57. f. 6.




Superintendent Botanical Garden, Saharanpur,


Captain P. T. CAUTLEY,

Superintendent, Doab Canal.

[ue fossil which we are about to describe forms a new accession to extinct Zoology. This circumstance alone would give much interest to it. But in addition, the large size, surpassing the Rhinoceros; the family of Mammalia to which it belongs; and the forms of structure which it exhibits ; render the Sivatheriwm one of the most remarkable of the past tenants of the globe, that have hitherto been detected in the more recent strata.

Of the numerous fossil mammiferous genera discovered and established by Cuvier, all were confined to the Pachydermata. The species belonging to other families, have all their living representatives on the earth. Among the Ruminantia, no remarkable deviation from existing types has hitherto been discovered, the fossil being closely allied to living species. The isolated position, however, of the Giraffe and the Camelide, made it

probable, that certain genera have become extinct, which formed the A


connecting links between those and the other genera of the family, and further between the Ruminantia and the Pachydermata. In the Sivatherium* we have a ruminant of this description connecting the family with the Pachydermata, and at the same time so marked by individual peculiarities as to be without an analogue in its order.

The fossil remain of the Sivatherium, from which our description is taken, is a remarkably perfect head. When discovered, it was fortunately so completely enveloped by a mass of stone, that although it had long been exposed to be acted upon as a boulder in a water course, all the more important parts of structure had been preserved. The block might have been passed over, but for an edging of the teeth in relief from it, which gave promise of something additional concealed. After much labour, the hard crystalline covering of stone was so successfully removed, that the huge head now stands out with a couple of horns between the orbits, broken only near their tips, and the nasal bones projected in a free arch, high above the chaffron. All the molars on both sides of the jaw are present

and singularly perfect. The only mutilation is at the vertex of the

* We have named the fossil, Sivatherium, from Siva, the Hinda god, and Onpvoy bellua. The Sivalik or Sub-Himalayan range of hills, is considered in the Hindu mytho- logy, as the Lutiah or edge of the roof of Stva’s dwelling in the Himélaya, and hence they are called the Siva-ala or Sib-ala, which by an easy transition of sound became the Sewalik of the English. The fossil has been discovered in a tract which may be included in the Sewdlik range, and we have given the name of Sivatherium to it, to commemorate this remarkable formation so rich in new animals. Another derivation of the name of the hills, as explained by the Mahant or High Priest at Dehra, is as follows :

Sewdlik, a corruption of Siva-wdla, a name given to the tract of mountains between the Jumna and Ganges, from having been the residence of [swara Stva and his son Gaye's, who under the form of an Elephant had charge of the Westerly portion from the village of Dudhli to the Jumna, which portion is also called Gangaja, gaja being in Hindi an Elephant. That portion Eastward from Dédhli or between that village and Haridwar is called Deodhar, from its being the especial residence of Deota or Iswara Stva: the whole tract however between

the Jumna and Ganges is called Siva-ala, or the habitation of Siva; unde der. Sewdalik,


cranium where the plane of the occipital meets that of the brow: and at the muzzle which is truncated a little way in front of the first molar. The only parts which are still concealed, are a portion of the occipital, the zygomatic fossee on both sides, and the base of the cranium over the spheenoid bone.

The form of the head is so singular and grotesque that the first glance at it strikes one with surprise. The prominent features are—ist, the great size approaching that of the Elephant : 2d, the immense developement and width of the cranium behind the orbits: 3d, the two divergent osseous cores for horns starting out from the brow between the orbits: 4th, the form and direction of the nasal bones, rising with great prominence out of the chaffron, and overhanging the external nostrils in a pointed arch: 5th, the great massiveness, width and shortness of the face forward from the orbits: 6th, the great angle at which the grinding plane of the molars deviates upwards from that of the base of the skull.

Viewed in lateral profile, the form and direction of the horns, and the rise and sweep in the bones of the nose, give a character to the head widely differing from+that of any other animal. The nose looks something like that of the Rhinoceros : but the resemblance is deceptive, and only owing to the muzzle being truncated. Seen from in frent, the head is somewhat wedge-shaped, the greatest width being at the vertex and thence gradually compressed towards the muzzle ; with contraction only at two points behind the orbits and under the malars. The zygomatic arches are almost concealed and nowise prominent : the brow is broad, and flat, and swelling laterally into two convexitives; the orbits are wide apart, and have the appearance of being thrown far forward, from the great production of the frontal upwards. There are no crests or ridges: the surface of the cranium is smooth, the lines are in curves, with no angularity. From the vertex to the root of the nose, the plane of the brow is in a straight line, with a slight rise between the horns. The accompanying drawings will at once give a better idea of the form than any description.


Now in detail of individual parts; and to commence with the most important and characteristic, the teeth:

There are six molars on either side of the upper jaw. The third of the series, or last milk molar, has given place to the corresponding permanent tooth, the detrition of which and of the last molar is well advanced and indicates the animal to have been more than adult.

The teeth are in every respect those of a ruminant with some slight individual peculiarities.

The three posterior or double molars are composed of two portions or semi-cylinders, each of which incloses, when partially worn down, a double crescent of enamel the convexity of which is turned inwards. The last molar, as is normal in ruminants, has no additional complication, like that in the corresponding tooth of the lower jaw. The plane of grinding slopes from the outer margin inwards. The general form is exactly that of an ox or camel, on alarge scale. The ridges of enamel are unequally in relief, and the hollows between them unequally scooped. Each semi-cylinder has its outer surface, in horizontal section, formed of three salient knuckles, with two intermediate sinuses; and its inner surface, of a simple arch or curve. But there are certain peculiarities by which the teeth differ from those of other ruminants.

In correspondence with the shortness of jaw, the width of the teeth is much greater in proportion to the length than is usual in the family: the width of the third and fourth molars being to the length as 2.24 and 2.2 to 1.55 and 1.68 inches, respectively : and the average width of the whole series being to the length as 2.13 to 1.76 inches. Their form is less prismatic : the base of the shaft swelling out into a bulge or collar, from which the inner surface slopes outward as it rises: so that the coronal becomes some- what contracted: in the third molar, the width at the coronal is 1.93, at the bulge of the shaft 2.24. The ridges and hollows on the outer surface descend less upon the shaft, and disappear upon the bulge. There are no

accessary pillars on the furrow of junction at the inner side. The crescentic


plates of enamel have a character which distinguishes them from all known ruminants: the inner crescent, instead of sweeping in a nearly simple curve, runs zig-zag-wise in large sinuous flexures, somewhat resembling the form in the Elasmotherium.

The three double molars differ from each other only in their relative states of wearing. The antepenultimate, being most worn, has the crescentic plates less curved, more approximate and less distinct: the penultimate and last molars are less worn, and have the markings more distinct.

The three anterior or simple molars have the usual form, which holds in Ruminantia, a single semi-cylinder, with but one pair of crescents. The first one is much worn and partly mutilated: the second is more entire, having been a shorter time in use, and finely exhibits the flexuous curves in the sweep of the enamel of the inner crescent: the last one has the sim- ple form of the permanent teoth which replaces the last milk molar: it also shews the wavy form of the enamel.

Regarding the position of the teeth im the jaw; the last four molars, viz. the three permanent and the last of replacement, run in a straight line, and on the opposite sides are parallel and equi-distant: the two anterior ones are suddenly directed inwards, so as to be a good deal approximated. If the two first molars were not thus inflected, the opposite lines of teeth would form exactly two sides of a square: the length of the line of teeth, and the intervals between the outer sur- faces of the four last molars, being almost equal, viz. 9.8 and 9.9 inches respectively.

The plane of detrition of the whole series of molars from rear to front is not horizontal, but in a slight curve, and directed upwards at a consider- able angle with the base of the skull: so that when the head is placed, so as to rest upon the occipital condyles and the last molars, a plane through

these points is cut by a chord along the curve of detrition of the whole B


series of molars at an angle of about 45°. This is one of the marked cha-

racters about the head :

DIMENSIONS OF THE TEETH. Length. Breadth. Inches. Inches. Last molar right side, Lee Lanier: ate Giatslevarereea ce « piece —- 2.35 Penultimate COO wists Seto las aieegne seers SP ACR Eco ae 2.20 2.38 Antepenultimate do. ....cccecccccececssccces soccer sreececs 1.68 2.20 Last simple molar, .......eseeee> sera ceeces ce cece seca rs ee 1.55 2.24 Second do. do. eiateracete, oredeie cepa say's see paseee nce pibicravalalinieawie 1.70 1.95 First do. do. eusietar a cue cle oictallajaele slclsciele siclec e(ers. sje s'G vele 1.70 1.90 Outer Inner Surfaces. Surfaces. Interval between the surfaces of last molar,,...2.20 00 ei gSleiiereletaiaie 9.9 5.5 Do. do. do. thirdamolary <.cpcsrs o ccarenrehin's orer 9.8 5.5 Do. do. do. SECONGIG,' acu. pace wcclea wegieis - 8.4 4.5 Do. do. do. First 3 Mons ics we gta e ale oiers eisrerne ois 6.4 3.2

Space occupied by the line of molars 9.8 inches.

Bones of the Head and Face.—From the age of the animal to which the head had belonged, the bones had become anchylosed at their commis- sures, so that every trace of suture has disappeared, and their limits and connections are not distinguishable.

The frontal is broad and flat, and slightly concave at its upper half. It expands laterally into two considerable swellings at the vertex, and sweeps down to join the temporals in an ample curve; and with no angu- larity. It becomes narrower forwards, to behind the orbits; and then expands again in sending off an apophysis to join with the malar bone, and complete the posterior circuit of the orbit. The width of the bone where narrowest, behind the orbit, is very great, being 16.2 inches. Partly between and partly to the rear of the orbits, there arise by a broad base passing insensibly into the frontal two short thick conical processes. They

taper rapidly to a point, a little way below which they are mutilated in


the fossil. They start so erect from the brow that their axis is perpen- dicular to their basement: and they diverge at a considerable angle. From their base upwards they are free from any rugosities, their surface being smooth and even. They are evidently the osseous cores of two intra- orbital horns. From their position and size they form one of the most remarkable features in the head. The connections of the frontal are no- where distinguishable, no mark of a suture remaining. At the upper end of the bone the skull is fractured and the structure of the bone is exposed. The internal and outer plates are seen to be widely separated, and the interval to be occupied by large cells, formed by an expansion of the diploe into plates as in the Elephant. The interval exceeds 24 inches in the occipital. On the left side of the frontal, the swelling at the vertex, has its upper lamina of bone removed, and the cast of the cells exhibits a surface of almond-shaped or oblong eminences with smooth hollows between.

The temporal is greatly concealed by a quantity of the stony matrix, which has not been removed from the temporal fossa. No trace of the squamous suture remains to mark its limits and connection with the fron- tal. The inferior processes of the bone about the auditory foramen have been destroyed or are concealed by stone. The zygomatic process is long and runs forward to join the corresponding apophysis of the jugal bone, with little prominence or convexity. A line produced along it would pass in front, through the tuberosities of the maxillaries, and to the rear along the upper margin of the occipital condyles. The process is stout and thick. The temporal fossa is very long and rather shallow. It does not rise up high on the side of the cranium; it is overarched by the cylinder- like sides of the frontal bone. The position and form of the articulating surface with the lower jaw are concealed by stone which has not been removed.

There is nothing in the fossil to enable us to determine the form and limits of the parietal bones: the cranium being chiefly mutilated

in the region which they occupy. But they appear to have had the


same form and character as in the ox: to have been intimately united with the occipitals, and to have jomed with the frontal at the upper angle of the skull.

The form and characters of the occipital are very marked. It occu- pies a large space, having width proportioned to that of the frontal, and considerable height. It is expanded laterally into two ale, which com- mence at the upper margin of the foramen magnum and proceed upwards and outwards. These ale are smooth, and are hollowed out downwards and outwards from near the condyles towards the mastoid region of the tem- poral. Their inner or axine margins proceed ina ridge arising from the border of the occipital foramen, diverging from each other nearly at right angles, and enclose a large triangular fossa into which they descend abruptly. This fossa, is chiefly occupied by stone in the fossil, but it does not appear shallow, and seems a modification of the same structure as in the Elephant. There is no appearance of an occipital crest or protube- rance. The bone is mutilated at the sides towards the junction with the temporals. Both here and at its upper fractured margin its structure is seen to be formed of large cells with the diploe expanded into plates, and the outer and inner lamine wide apart. This character is very marked at its upper margin, where its cells appear to join on with those of the frontal. The condyles are very large and fortunately very perfect in the fossil, the longest diameter of each is 4.4 inches, and the distance measured, across the foramen magnum, from their outer angles, is 7.4 inches : dimen- sions exceeding those of the Elephant. Their form is exactly as in the Ruminantia, viz. their outer surface composed of two convexities meeting at a rounded angle: one in the line of the long axis stretching obliquely backwards from the anterior border of the foramen magnum; on the other forwards and upwards from the posterior margin, their line of commissure being in the direction of the transverse diameter of the foramen. The lat- ter is also of large size, its antero-posterior diameter being 2.3 inches, and

the transverse diameter 2.6 inches. The large dimensions of the foramen


and condyles must entail a corresponding developement in the vertebre, and modify the form of the neck and anterior extremities.

The sphenoidal bone, and all the parts along the base of the skull from the occipital foramen to the palate are either removed or so concealed by stone as to give no characters for description.

The part of the brow from which the nasal bones commence is not distinguishable. The suture connecting them with the frontal is com- pletely obliterated : and it is not seen whether they run up into a sinus in that bone, or how they join on with it. Between the horns there is a rise in the brow, which sinks again a little forward. A short way in advance of a line connecting the anterior angles of the orbits, there is another rise in the brow. From this point, which may be considered their base, the nasal bones commence ascending from the plane of the brow, at a considerable angle. They are broad and well arched at their base, and proceed forward with a convex outline, getting rapidly narrower, to terminate in a point curved downwards, which overhangs the external nostrils. For a considerable part of their length they are joined to the maxillaries : but forwards from the point where they commence narrow- ing, their lower edge is free and separated from the maxillaries by a wide sinus : so that viewed in lateral profile their form very much resembles the upper mandible of a hawk, detached from the lower. Unluckily in the fossil, the anterior margins of the maxillaries are mutilated, so that the exact length of the nasal bone that was free from connection with them cannot be determined. ‘As the fossil stands, about four inches of the lower edge of the nasals, measured along the curve, are free. The same mutila- tion prevents its being seen how near the incisives approached the nasals, with which they do not appear to have been joined. This point is one of great importance, from the structure it implies in the soft parts about the. nose. The height and form of the nasal bones, are the most remarkable

feature in the head: viewed from above they are seen to taper rapidly from Cc


a broad base to a sharp point ; and the vertical height of their most con- vex part above the brow at their base, is 33 inches.

The form of the maxillaries is strongly marked in two respects : 1st, their shortness compared with their great width and depth: 2d, in the upward direction of the line of alveoli from the last molar forwards, giving the appearance (with the licence of language intended to convey an idea of resemblance without implying more) as if the face had been pushed upwards to correspond with the rise in the nasals ; or fixed on at an angle with the base of the cranium. The tendency to shortness of the jaw was observed in the dimensions of the teeth, the molars being compressed, and their width exceeding their length to an extent not usual in the Ruminan- tia. The width apart, between the maxillaries, was noticed before; the interval, between the outer surfaces of the alveoli, equalling the space in length occupied by the line of molars. The cheek tuberosities are very large and prominent, their diameter at the base being 2 inches and the

width of the jaw over them being 12.2 inches, whereas at the alveoli it is

but 9.8 inches. They are situated over the third and fourth molars ; and:

proceeding up from them towards the malar, there is an indistinct ridge on the bone. The infra-orbitary foramen is of large size, its vertical diameter being 1.2 inch ; it is placed over the first molar as in the ox and deer tribe. The muzzle portion of the bone is broken off at about 2.8 inches from the ist molar, from the alveolar margin of which, to the surface of the diastema, there is an abrupt sink of 1.7 inch. The muzzle is here contracted to 5.8 inches, and forwards at the truncated part to about 4.1. The palatine arch is convex from rear to front, and concave across. No trace of the palatine foramina remains, nor of the suture with the proper palatine bones. The

spheeno-palatine apophyses and all back to the foramen magnum” are

* With the exception of a portion of the basilary region, which resembles that of the Ruminants,


either removed or concealed in stone. In front, the mutilation of the bone, at the muzzle, does not allow it to be seen, how the incisive bones were connected with the maxillaries: but it appears that they did not reach so high on the maxillaries as the union of the latter with the nasals. The same cause has rendered obscure the connections of the maxillaries with the nasals, and the depth and size of the nasal echancrure or sinus.

The jugal bone is deep, massive and rather prominent. Its lower border falls off abruptly in a hollow descending on the maxillaries: the upper enters largely into the formation of the orbit. The posterior orbital process unites with a corresponding apophysis of the frontal to complete the circuit of the orbit behind. The zygomatic apophysis is stout and thick, and rather flat. No part of the arch, either in the temporal or jugal portions is prominent : the interval between the most salient points being greatly less than the hind part of the cranium, and slightly less than the width between the bodies of the jugals.

The extent and form of the lachrymals, cannot be made out, as there is no trace of a suture remaining. Upon the fossil, the surface of the la- chrymary region passes-smoothly into that of the adjoining bones. There is no perforation of the lower and anterior margin of the orbit by lachrymary foramina, nor any hollow below it indicating an infra-orbital or lachrymary sinus. It may be also added, what was omitted before, that there is no trace of a superciliary foramen upon the frontal.

The orbits are placed far forwards, in consequence of the great pro- duction of the cranium upwards,-and the shortness of the bones of the face. Their position is also rather low, their centre being about 3.6 inches below the plane of the brow. From a little injury done in chisseling off the stone, the form or circle of the different orbits does not exactly correspond. In the one of the left side, which is the more perfect, the long axis makes a small angle with that of the plane of the brow: the antero-posterior dia- meter is 3.3 inches, and the vertical 2.7 inches. There is no prominence

or inequality in the rim of the orbits, as in the Ruminantia. The plane


of the rim is very oblique: the interval between the upper or frontal mar-

gins of the two orbits being 12.2 inches, and that of the lower or molar

margin 16.2 inches.


From the anterior margin of the foramen magnum to the alveolus of Ist molar,«. 18.85 From do. to the truncated extremity of the muzzle, ..ccceceessenccsee aeveee 20.6 From do. to the posterior margin of the last molar, .seecs ee cece ve esece cess, LOve From the tip of the nasals to the upper fractured margin of the cranium, ...... 18.0 From do. do. to do. along the curve, ........ miagiejar sisisparsselexas tithe. aisiou OO From do. do. along the curve, to where the nasal arch begins to rise from the PLOW) accbas socesesecees vobced cece ceeces meestseebetueceesiessedoce 40 From the latter point to the fractured margin of the cranium, ........-....-65 11.2 From the tip of the nasals to a chord across the tips of the Notns,: ve detucos-oeee.: (Sub From the anterior angle, right orbit, to the first molar, ...... ceccee covccecess 9.9 From the posterior do. do. to the fractured margin of the cranium, ........ 12.1 Width of cranium at the vertex (mutilation at left side restored), about ....++.. 22.0 Do: between the orbits, upper borders, oo veces ssc etecscses secccacciscersee 12:2 Do. lisiceeweace. Gos lower borders, veere%sss. Pon see ous Oe ee eG SD Do. behind the orbits at the contraction of the frontal, .....cceoccecceesccese 14.6 Do. between the middle of the zygomatic arches, ...¢.ceescorccccccescvecse 16.4 Do. between the bodies of the malar bones, ...0 cece ccccccce veccscsesesees 16.62 Do. base of the skull behind the mastoid processes (mutilated on both sides,) e. 19.5 Do. between the cheek tuberosities of the maxillaries, ...ccccces vecces coccce 12.2 Do. of muzzle portion of the maxillaries in front of the first molar,...... esse 5.8 where truncated, (partly restored), <.ssicie. 6iceievwiaiie's s:atete'ccoio\sidieig ale ier 4a Do. between the outer surfaces of the horns at their base,.....sceccccccsceecs 12.5 Do. dO. 75 7.) 00, iractured tips Of GIttO, cic. ceseiaiec sie esis sleciainleea ot co 13:60 Perpendicular from a chord across tips of do. to the brow, cseccececcccevacee 4.2 Depth from the convexity of the occipital condyles to middle of frontal behind the INOTNS; We eietoleloncratotere ls \aloveiclaignateieveroleleverteteretelele elelels anelelelsivierctecciertieleisiererevenl ICO Do. from the body of the sphoenoidal to do. between the horns, ...e+e...2..-2 9.94 Do. from middle of the palate between the 3d and 4th molars do. at root of the MASA Sercterevelataletolaveheleievovsterchararehele elcievorcloterer evel ploveieicier misletoncrsiats oe vereveiciviod te sieies waco Do. from posterior surface last molar to extremity of the nasals, ...2...eseeee 13,0 Do. from grinding surface penultimate molar to root of the nasals, ....00..+-.+ 10.3 Do. from the convexity near the tip of the nasals to the palatial surface in front of the first molar,: ... cece cccccccccccccc cesses seers ssteces esos seceae ) OOo

478 2263 -262 -4568 4822

198 -284 -216 251 3075 059 3095 4108 3705 A168 422 496 3095 -149 104 312 347 165

* To facilitate comparison with the large animals described in Cuvigr’s Ossemens

Fossiles, the dimensions are also given in French measure.


Eng. Inches. Metres. Depth from middle of the ala of the occipital to the swell at vertex of frontal, .. 8.98 .228

Do. from inferior margin of the orbit to grinding surface 5th molar, ....seee00 7.3 .186 Do. from the grinding surface Ist molar to edge of the palate in front of it, .... 2.6 .066 Space from the anterior angle of orbit to tip of the nasals, ...seeesseessccese 10.2 2595

Antero-posterior diameter left orbit,.... eecececeeccccsnqae vescesccsccssees 3.3 O84

Vertical ; do. ORY Tonieieretcleloveterstedslelescfeln’ ace els .eis\'s /s's\e's elle Seeciasa 2 O6GD Antero-posterior diameter of the foramen magnUM, .oecerecere sevceessreress 2.3 .058 Transverse do. Ona eeaisisiel ajo raiel olepelaleiaiereesiejelajelinieialsitnrein's oisieleit 2:6.¥. OGG, Long diameter of each condyle, ;.......- Ba E OLA lo Meg eure tie alee ecere cle ciee weve) 4:4 V1 119 Short or transverse do. of do. ...2..-+. sAETAGED wSioe eon c cd leldeldecieisWerbiedtaldesle 249} 20603

Interval between the external angles of do. measured across the foramen, cecooe V4 .188

Among a quantity of bones collected in the neighbourhood of the spot in which the skull was found, there is a fragment of the lower jaw of a very large ruminant which we have no doubt belonged to the Sivatherium : and it is even not improbable that it came from the same individual with the head described. It consists of the hind portion of the right jaw broken off at the anterior third of the last molar. The coronoid apophysis, the condyle, with the corresponding part of the ramus, and a portion of the angle are also removed. The two posterior thirds only, of the last molar, remain ; the grinding surface partly mutilated, but sufficiently distinct to show the crescentic plates of enamel, and prove that the tooth belonged to aruminant. The outline of the jaw in vertical section, is a compressed. ellipse, and the outer surface more convex than the inner. The bone thins off, on the inner side towards the angle of the jaw, into a large and well marked muscular hollow : and running up from the latter, upon the ramus towards the foramen of the artery there is a well defined furrow, as in the Ruminantia. The surface of the tooth is covered with very small rugosities, and striz, asin the upper molars of the head. It had been composed of three semi-cylinders, as is normal in the family, and the advanced state of its wearing proves the animal from which it proceeded

to have been more than adult.


The form and relative proportions of the jaw agree very closely with those of the corresponding parts of a buffalo. The dimensions compared

with those of the buffalo and camel are thus :

Sivatherium. Buffalo. Camel. Depth of the jaw from the alveolus last molar, ,...0.. 4.95 inch. 2.65 inch. 2.70 inch. Greatest. thickness Of dos <<<jeveisjinieisrasare sie isietesieueias oO LO 1.05 1.4 Width of.middle of last:molar, s.. 0.03 'eeeess bees) 2.30 0.64 0.76 Length of posterior 2-3d of do. 22.02. -cecce cscs 2.15 0.95 1.15

No known ruminant, fossil or existing, has a jaw of such large size ;

the average dimensions above given being more than double those of a

Buffalo, which measured in length of head 19.2 inches (.489 métres); and exceeding those of the corresponding parts of the Rhinoceros. We have therefore no hesitation in referring the fragment to the Sivatherium Giganteum.

The above comprises all that we know regarding the osteology of the head from an actual examination of the parts. We have not been so for- tunate hitherto, as to meet with any other remain, comprising the anterior part of the muzzle either of the upper or lower jaw.* We shall now pro- ceed to deduce the form of the deficient parts, and the structure of the head generally, to the extent that may be legitimately inferred, from the data of which we are in possession.

Notwithstanding the singularly perfect condition of the head, for an

organic remain of such enormous size, we cannot but regret the mutilation

* Ina note received from Captain CAUTLEY while this paper is in the press, that gen- tleman mentions the discovery of a portion of the skeleton of a Sivatherium in another part of the hills: See Journal As. Soc. Vol. IV. ‘‘ During my recent trip to the Siwdliks near the Pinjor valley, the field of Messrs. Bakrer and DuraNnp’s labours, I regretted much my inabi- lity to obtain the dimensions of one of the most superb fossils 1 suppose that ever was found. It was unfortunately discovered and excavated by a party of work people employed by a gen- tleman with whom [ was unacquainted, and although I saw the fossil when in the rock, I was prevented from getting the measurements afterwards. This specimen consisted of the femur and tibia, with the tarsal, metatarsal, and phalanges of our Sivatherium.” It is much to be regretted that such an opportunity should have been lost of adding to the information already acquired of this new and gigantic Ruminant.—SEc.


at the muzzle and vertex, as it throws a doubt upon some very interesting points of structure in the Sivatherium: Ist, the presence or absence of incisive and canine teeth in the upper jaw, and their number and character if present ; 2d, the number and extent of the bones which enter into the basis of the external nostrils ; and 3d, the presence or absence of two horns on the vertex, besides the two intra-orbital ones.

Regarding the first point, we have nothing sufficient to guide us with certainty to a conclusion, as there are ruminants both with and without incisives and canines in the upper jaw; and the Sivatherium differs most materially in structure from both sections. But there are two conditions of analogy which render it probable that there were no incisives. In all ruminants which have the molars in a contiguous and normal series, and which have horns on the brow, there are no incisive teeth. In the Camel and its congeners, where the anterior molars is unsymmetrical and separat- ed from the rest of the series by an interval, incisives are present in the upper jaw. The Sivatherium had horns, and its molars were in a conti- guous series: it is therefore probable that it had no incisives. Regarding the canines there is no clue to a conjecture, as there are species in the same genus of ruminants both with and without them. 2. The extent and connections of the incisive bones are points of great interest, from the kind of developement which they imply in the soft parts appended to them.

In most of the horned ruminantia, the incisives run up by a narrow apophysis along the anterior margins of the maxillary bones, and join on to a portion of the sides of the nasals ; so that the bony basis of the exter- nal nostrils is formed of but two pairs of bones, the nasals and the incisives. In the Camel, the apophyses of the incisives terminate upon the maxilla- ries without reaching the nasals, and there are three pairs of bones to the external nostrils, the nasals, maxillaries and incisives. But neither in the horned ruminants, nor in the Camel and its congeners, do the bones of the nose rise out of the plane of the brow with any remarkable degree of

saliency, nor are their lower margins free to any great extent towards the


apex. They are long slips of bone, with nearly parallel edges, running between the upper borders of the maxillaries, and joined to the ascending process of the incisive bone, near their extremity, or connected only with the maxillaries ; but in neither case projecting so as to form any consider- able re-entering angle, or sinus, with these bones.

In our fossil, the form and connections of the nasal bones, are very different. Instead of running forward in the same plane with the brow, they rise from it at a rounded angle of about 130°, an amount of saliency without example among ruminants, and exceeding what holds in the Rhi- noceros, Tapir, and Paleotherium, the only herbivorous animals with this sort of structure. Instead of being in nearly parallel slips, they are broad, and well arched at their base, and converge rapidly to a sharp tip which is hooked downwards over-arching the external nostrils. Along a consider- able portion of their length they are unconnected with the adjoining