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Contribution from the States Relations Service A. C. TRUE, Director

Washington, D. C. PROFESSIONAL PAPER November 11, 1915


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Contribution from the States Relations Service Saag A. C. TRUE, Director Se Fue,

Washington, D.C. PROFESSIONAL PAPER November 11, 1915


By HE. A. Miter, Specialist in Agricultural Education.


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The purpose of this bulletin is to set forth simple exercises with plants and animals arranged after a monthly sequence plan for the first five grades in southern rural schools. The monthly sequence plan is followed so that plants and animals may be studied at a time

when they are most interesting. The monthly exercises provide

work for each of the first five grades of the public school. Practical exercises and field trips are eee ed. If the best results are to be

obtained each pupil should be required to have notebooks and keep records of the observations made and the information secured. In connection with each exercise correlations with other subjects are

given. These are intended to be suggestive, but if the idea is followed out and supplemented the ordinary public school branches may be sreatly vitalized. It is intended that this publication shall serve as an approach to the study of formal or textbook ee in the upper elementary grades.

Jt is to be understood that this is in no sense a textbook, but a

guide for the teacher. There may be communities to which all the

exercises given here are not adapted, but in that event they should prove sufficiently suggestive to be helpful to the teacher in planning

1 Prepared under the direction of C. H. Lane, Chief Specialist in Agricultural Education. Norte.—This bulletin is intended especially for the use of rural school teachers in the Southern States. §394°—Bull. 305—15——1


work that may be substituted. Nothing definite is said concerning the place this work should take in the daily program, but it is sug- gested that the period of one or two regular classes be used once or twice each week. In other words, it need not be treated as an addi- tional subject in the curriculum but for the sake of its own importance | and the vitalizing influence on the other public school subjects this work should be substituted for one or two other recitations each week in the several grades. Lf All publications referred to in this bulletin may be ot free while © the supply lasts from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Wash- | ington, D.C. | SEPTEMBER.

(Plate I.)

To Teacuers.—The accompanying calendar is a suggestion. One similar to this | should occupy a conspicuous place on the blackboard or on a large wall placard. The idea is to have each month some striking feature of nature or of farm life. The calendar may be prepared and decorated by the teacher, or a drawing contest can be conducted with the pupils, awarding to the winner the privilege of making and decorating the calendar.'


The work of these grades for the year consists of learnmg the names of the animals and plants of the community, giving special attention to birds as to where they live, what they eat, and their nesting habits, and to garden flowers and vegetables as to seasons in which they grow. Individual birds and plants are studied.


Review.—Review the pupils in plants to ascertain what they already know. Assigned work.—What seeds are being sown in the home or school garden this month—lettuce, radishes? What plants are up and beginning to grow—lIrish potatoes, turnips? What plants are in bloom—late corn, okra? What plants maturing or ripening seed— onions, pepper, tomatoes, pole beans? How do these plants grow— ~ on beds, rows? Do the vines or stalks run on the ground, stand erect, or are they supported by frames and poles? Practical exercises—Have pupils bring to school roots, leaves, flowers, and seed of garden plants for study. Mount typical spea- mens of each. (See Farmers’ Bul. 586.) The pupils of this grade should start two or three winter vegetables in the school or home plat. (See planting table in the Appendix.) Make frequent trips to the school garden to study seed in process of germination and to learn the names of the parts of the plantlets

1 The calendar suggestions were furnished by Miss Margaret McAdory, Manual Training Supervisor, Birmingham, Ala.



Correlations.—Correlate the work with language lessons by having

the pupils tell orally short stories of their experiences in the garden

planting seed, collecting specimens, and observing germinating seed.

These short stories should be reduced to writing by pupils of the

second gerade and the work given a piace in the class notebook. (See & g


Outlines of leaves, roots, flowers, seeds, and fruits of plants studied should constitute the work in drawing.


Review.—Ascertain what the pupils of these grades know about birds and animals. Continue learning the names of animals and birds. a

Assigned work.—Specialize in bird studies. List the names of birds that may be seen this month.

Study a few particular birds, such as the blue jay, the humming bird, the mocking bird, the bluebird, and the swallow. Do they reside permanently in your State? Do they migrate south? What do they eat? Where do they build their nests? Is there a reason for the nest being located as it is? What is the color of the head, the breast, the wings, the back, the tail? Do they hop or run, or

-both? Do they sing—character of note? Inmnitate.

Practical exercises.—Yncourage birds to frequent school and home yards by putting at particular places lunch remnants, meat scraps, and broken grain. Make them ‘‘gentle” by feeding and kind treat- ment. Make trips to the school grounds, fields, and woods to observe the habits of the birds being studied. Make records of observations im the class notebook. The following is an example record:

The Biuebird.

1. Most bluebirds go south in winter. Some remain.

. They collect most of their food from the ground—insects and weed seeds.

3. They build their nests in holiow stumps, posts, and rails, in gardens, fields, and orchards. :

4. There are two special reasons for the location of their nests—to protect their young, and to be convenient to source of food.

5. Color: Head, blue; breast, brown; wings, blue; back, blue; tail, blue.

6. Bluebirds both hop and run. -

7. Bluebirds sing.


Correlations —Ample material abounds for correlation work. listing birds seen this month, making records of observations, relating stories, oral and written, of experiences on observation

trips furnish language lesson exercises. The best written work should have a place in the class notebook.

_ Make drawings of particular feathers and tracks of each kind of bird studied. The best drawings should be mounted in the ciass



In this grade the population studies in a general way are continued with all plants and animals. More particular studies are made with garden crops. Additional work with annual wild flowers and weeds is undertaken. Particular attention is given individual plants. The bird studies are continued in greater detail, and additional work is undertaken with domestic and economic wild mammals. Lessons with particular animals are outhned.


Review.—Keview the pupils on recognizing at sight trees, flowers, and garden and field crops. This recognition work should be carried further than with the preceding grades. Trips to the forests and fields should be planned for this purpose. Children are easily inter- ested in things that are attractive. Take advantage of this and direct their attention to plants that are attractive in foliage, flowers, or fruit this month. Have pupils make lists of trees, flowers, and garden and field crops they are able to recognize at sight.

Assigned work.—What garden crops are planted this month? Why can they be planted in the fall? Do they continue to grow during the wimter months?) What garden plants are blooming this month? When were they planted? Why? What garden crops are maturing seeds, roots, or tubers this month? When were they planted or transplanted? Were the plants started in the open or in hotbeds?) Why? Will they grow during the winter months? How are their plants reproduced—by seed, roots, or tubers? [If left to propagate themselves how would the seed be distributed? Answer these questions with regard to okra, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, and pole beans. :

Are there any wild flowers or weeds blooming or ripening seed on the school ground, in the garden, on the roadside, in the pastures, or in the fields? How do they reproduce—by seeds, roots, or underground stems? How are the seeds scattered—attached to clothes of people or skins of animals, by bursting pods, by flying appendages, by birds, or otherwise? Answer these questions with regard to beggar lice, bitterweed, goldenrod, crab grass, milkweed.

List and copy in the class notebook the names of wild flowers and weeds that bloom or mature seed this month. (If you can not learn the names of any that you find, mail them to the State agricultural college with the request that they be identified for you.)

Encourage pupils to have fall and winter garden plats either on the school yard or at home. While caring for the garden plats have them observe seeds in process of germination and learn to name and locate the parts of plants—roots, stems, leaves, flowers, seeds.

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Pracical exercises.—Have pupils select from choice garden plants seeds that are maturing this month. Store seed in smali paper bags in a place not subject to extremes of temperature and to the ravages

of insects and mice.

Collect roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and seed of blooming and seed- maturing garden plants, wild flowers, and weeds. Mount the leaves and flowers in the class notebook. The roots, stems, and seed should be mounted on separate cards and labeled so as te indicate the name of the plant, the month collected, and the class making the collection. (See Farmers’ Bul. 586.)

Correlatvons.—Language lessons: The trips in search of wild flowers and weeds afiord material for written work. The location of a plant, its general appearance, the kind of leaves, flowers, and seed it bears, the manner of distributing its seed should form an outline for a written story.

Drawing: Sketch the roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruit or seeds of plants studied this month. The best drawing should be mounted in the class notebook.


Review and continued work.—Continue population studies.

Study birds more in detail. Are there new birds to be seen this month? Are they seen in flocks or alone? What do they eat? Do

they go farther south or remain for the winter? Begin to look for

the bobolink, or rice bird, and the field lark. What member of the class will be the first to report the appearance of a new bird?

Some or all of the following birds will seek a warmer climate during the winter: The cuckoo or rain crow, catbird, martin, kingbird, night and sparrow hawks. They should be given attention before they go away. Compare the males and females. Which are bright? Which dull? Can you give reasons? Uses of feathers on different parts of the body—shedding water, warmth, flying, balancing in air and on perches, propping on trees.

Compare the feathers on the neck, breast, back, wing, and tail of a chicken with those of some other farm fowl—turkey, goose, or guinea. Learn the parts of a feather—quill, barb, and barbel.

New work assigned.—Begin the study of domestic and wild mam- mals (animals that suckle their young) that are of economic im- portance this month. What domestic mammals are rendering service? Idle? Gathering their own food? Being fed?

What wild mammals are destroying or damaging garden or field crops? Does the damage done justify their extermination? Are they useful for game ?

Answer the following questions with regard to the animals you select for study: Where do they live now? What is the winter home


of each? Do they continue active during the winter or do they ‘hibernate (go into winter quarters)? What do they eat? How do © they obtain food ? : Practical exerci study animais and list those studied and record the facts learned in connection with each. Best records should have a place in class netebook. Correlation.—Language lessons: Write stories on the use oi feathers and on the habits of mammals studied this month.

Drawing: Sketch animals studied this month and mount the best

ones in class notebook. Find pictures of animals in farm papers and mount in the class notebook.


In this grade population studies are continued with plants and animals. The advanced plant studies include field crops and domestic and wild shrubs. The special studies with birds and mammals are continued and saditonal work with toads and a few common insects is taken up.


Review and continued u trees, domestic and wild flowers, garden and field crops. The plants that are especially attractive at this season should be given attention. _ It is easier to associate names with striking features. Make trips and give reviews often. As new plants are learned add names to the ©


New work assigned.—What field crops are planted this month?

Why should they be planted in the fall? Oats? Wheat? Rye?

Crimson clover ? ; What field crops are in bioom this month? When planted and why? £

Make a list of all field crops that are planted or that are blooming and maturing seed this month.

Practical exercises.—Select choice seed from field crops and shrubs. and store for study or planting. If the seeds are not sufficiently matured to gather, mark them to be gathered at a later date. Seed for identification study should be mounted on cards or "Placed in screw-capped bottles and labeled. )

Gather the matured garden crops, clear away rubbish, and begin preparing soil and planting fall crops. Insist on all pupils of this grade having a garden plat either at home or at school. (See suggested garden crops for this season in Appendix.) ;

The interior of the schoolroom should be tastily decorated with plants bearing fruit and seed from the gardens and fields. Have pupils bring these to school and assist in decorating. Vitalize the school work by giving the schoolroom an atmosphere of the preduets of life processes.


Correlations. —Langu uage lessons should consist of stories and de- scriptions concerning the plants studied, the garden work done, and the fruit and seed collections mounted and stored.

Ample material for drawing lessons is provided by the plants, leaves, fruit, and seed studied this month.

Geography: Simple lessons in distribution of crops may be drawn from such questions as: What crops or parts of crops studied this month are consumed by the family? By the animals and poultry? Are sold for community use? For shipment to other sections? (Blackboard exercise.)

The studies should be correlated with history by simple lessons on the crop under consideration as suggested by the following questions: What plants have been grown in the community a long time? Recently introduced? Whaitshrubs are native? Which introduced ? Which have been domesticated a long time? Which recently? (Blackboard exercise.)

Gather data and state problems on cost of production, value, and estimated yields per acre of crops studied this month.


Review and continued work.—Birds: Continue the population stud- ies. For advanced work, group the birds you have been studying according to their methods of catching insects. Do they climb over buds, leaves, and limbs looking for insect eggs? Do they search on the ground for cutworms, crickets, and grasshoppers? Do they look among the branches and leaves for caterpillars or do they perch in some open place and dart into the air after flies and beetles?

Mammals:. Continue the study of domestic and wild mammals, as indicated in the outline for the third grade.

New work assigned.—The toad is of inestimable value to man in the destruction of harmful insects of garden, orchard, and field. Children should be taught that this homely amphibian is a real friend and that it should be protected in every way possible. The toad will -soon go into winter quarters, so the pupils should be encouraged to observe its habits. (Farmers’ Bul. 196.)

- Some attention should be given to some of the more common insects,

such as the boll weevil, the cattle tick, the house fly, the potato beetle, and the white fly. Where common, bring them to school, learn to identify them, become familiar with the injury they work, and note the ways in which they are active during the month.

Practical exercises.—Locate one or more toads in the school yard, home yard, garden, or orchard. Watch closely this month. Is the coat or skin shed? What time of day is the toad moving about? What kind of tongue has the toad? Does the tongue differ from those of other animals in shape? In the way in which it is attached ? _ How is the tongue employed in catching insects? What insects does



the toad eat? Feed it live snails, thousand-legged worms, spiders, erasshoppers, crickets, beetles, cutworms, army worms, fea cater- pillars. How does the toad differ from the tree fron? (Farmers’ Bul. 196.)

Collect a number cf quart bottles with as large mouths as possible. Place in one of these cotton squares with specks on the side that have just been shed, cover with some thin cloth and observe them daily and study the developments. (Farmers’ Bul. 512.)

In another bottle place orange or grapefruit leaves that have white dust, small scale-like specks smaller than a pinhead; thick, round- bodied grubs with very short legs and with a bright red spot on the | back, or small white flies attached to the under surface. Study joes ayaenie.

In another bottie place fall Irish potato vines that are infested with beetles. Study daily to become familiar with the various stages of development. Fresh leaves should be added from time to time to furnish food.

Attempt to answer these questions:

(1) Where do house flies breed?

(2) How long do they require to develop?

(3) How many generations are grown in a season? ~ (4) How are they dangerous? How prevented?

(Farmers’ Bul. 679.)

Mount specimens of insects studied this month. (See Farmers’ Bul. 606.)

Correlations.—Language lesson material is abundant. Describing the toad, its habits and means of livelihood and recording observa- tions wut the insects studied provide ample subject matter for writ- ten work.

Drawings of the toad and the different stages of the insects studied should be made.

Exercises based on estimates of the number of insects destroyed annually by the toad, the number of descendants from one house fly, one boll weevil, one white fly, or one cattle tick in a year, and on estimates of the damage done to the various crops by the descendants of one of these insects in a year provide interesting correlation in arithmetic. (See references for estimates.)

Locate counties freed of cattle tick. Locate on the map the point at which the boll weevil was introduced into this country. Indicate on the map the part of the South infested with the boll weevil.


Population studies in plants and animals of all kinds are continued. Advanced studies with orchard and forest trees are taken up. Some more detailed work with mammals and birds is undertaken and special attention is given to economic insects and fungus growths.


Review.—Review the pupils of this grade on the plant population of the community. They should be able to recognize at sight those _ plants that have been studied by pupils of the lower grades.

New assignment.—Give special attention to orchard and forest trees. Locate and name those that are ripening fruit or maturing seed. Having listed and located the foregoing designated plants, study them to be able to answer the following questions: What are the parts of the trees? In what location—hill, hollow, swamp, ledge of rock—do they flourish? What are the uses of the wood, sap, fruit, seed ?

For study throughout the year select a striking tree of economic importance on or near the school yard and begin this month to make observations, take notes, and make drawings along the lines indicated by the following: (1) Outline drawing, accompanied by written description of the tree as it appears this month; (2) outline of a small branch, showing how leaves are attached—long or short stem, opposite or alternate; (8) outlines of leaves, with descriptions to show the relative sizes of leaves from different parts of the tree. Show the color of upper and lower surfaces, the arrangement of veins, and the kind of margin. (The foregoing should be followed throughout the year in the study of the tree selected.)

Practical exercises.—Collecting and mounting leaves, seed, and small specimens of wood of the trees being studied this month and learning to identify them should constitute a part of the practical work. (See Farmers’ Bul. 586.)

A large chart should be prepared and placed in a conspicuous place on the wall of the school for recording (phenological) observa- tions. Its purpose should be explained, and the pupils of all grades _ should be encouraged to assist m gathering data. (For sample chart and explanation see Appendix.)

Every pupil of this grade should have a garden either at school or at home. Gathermeg vacation crops, clearing away rubbish, prepar- ine and fertilizing the soil, and planting fall and winter crops should occupy the attention of the pupils. Crops should be planted that can be consumed or gathered in time for planting early spring gar- dens. (For suggested crops see Appendix.)

Correlations.—Language: Write descriptions covering practical exercises with plant studies.

Drawing: Make drawings of the specimens of wood collected. Colored crayons should bo used to indicate proper shade of the dif- ferent parts of the wood.

Geography: Make an outline map of the school district and indi- cate the locations of orchards and considerable groups of forest trees - that have been given special attention this month. 0394°—Bull. 305—15——-2


History: Have members of the class prepare statements of the facts as to the kinds of forest and fruit trees that have been and are dying out in the community, and, if possible, state reasons.

Arithmetic: A simple method for determining the number of feet of lumber in a log is: Subtract 4 inches from the diameter of the small end to ailow for slab, multiply the remainder by one-half itself, then by the length of the log in feet, and divide by 8.

(i) Find the number of feet in a log 24 inches in diameter and 16 feet long. (2) A tree is cut into three logs each 12 feet iong. The diameters for the smaller ends are each 36, 30, and 24 inches. Find the number of feet of lumber in the tree. ANIMALS.

Review and continued work.—Population studies of all kinds of animals, birds, and insects are continued.

Begin the study of a particular group of birds, say, the wood- peckers or sparrows. Follow this study month by month. Some of the more common woodpeckers are hairy woodpecker, downy woodpecker, flicker or yellow hammer, red-headed woodpecker, and yellow-breasted sapsucker. The following outline is suggested as a guide to group study for the year: (1) Generali ferm, size, and appearance of eack member of group; (2) color—back, head, throat, breast, tail—both of males and females; (8) methods of each in procuring food and what is eaten; (4) manner of climbing and descending trees; (5) use of beak. What is the drum, and how and when used? (6) Holes—kinds of trees, location, extent, uses; (7) manner of flight; (8) resident or migrant, time of arriving and leay- ing; (9) places frequented—weoeds, fields, yards, swamps; (10) kinds of songs, notes, etc.; (11) useful, how? Harmful, how?

Begin a month by month study of a particular group of wild mammals, such as squirrels. The squirrel family includes the gray squirrel, the red squirrel, the ground squirrel or chipmunk, and the woodchuck or “‘ground heg.” The following outhne suggests observations and studies for the year with any group of mammals it is convenient to consider:

(1) General form and size of each animal of the group.

(2) Color of different parts—head, back, tail, under surface.

(3) Characteristic parts peculiar to each member of the group or to the group as a whole—teeth, toes, and tail.

(4) Manner of moving—on ground, climbing and descending.

(5) Where they make homes—in hollow trees or logs, in burrows, under banks or rubbish.

(6) What places they frequent—gardens, orchards, fields, woods, barns, and houses.

(7) What do they eat? Manner of procuring food?

(8) Do they store a supply of food for winter, go into a dormant or sleeping stage, or gather food in winter?

(9) Are they useful? How? Harmful? How?

(10) What are their natural enemies?

(11) li harmful, how may they be combated? (Yearbook Separate 491, Use of Poisons for Destroying Noxious Mammals, Yearbook 1908, p. 421.)



New assignment.—Give special attention to insect pests and fungus diseases of gardens, orchards, fields, and forests. During this month many of these are especially active making preparations to send a large number of pupe and spores through the winter months. In- sects and fungus diseases that are not recognized should be sent to the State college of agriculture for identification.

Insects found should be studied to learn their life history; that is, appearance of the egg and where deposited, the appearance of the larva and the proper common name to be used for it (grub, caterpillar, or maggot), the length of time spent in that stage, the damage done, and means of destroying; the appearance of the pupa or dor- mant stage, places in which found, the time spent in this stage, and the methods of destroying; the appearance of the adult and its common name, the places it frequents, the damage done, if any, where © it deposits eggs, and methods of destroying.

Have pupils of this grade study and make reports on insects in any stage found during this month in the gardens, orchards, fields, and forests. Parts of plants being attacked should be brought to study the damage done. In the gardens look for cabbage and collard worms, potato beetles; in fields look for the boil weevil, the cotton caterpillar, and the cotton bollworm, the grass or corn worm; in orchards look for the San José scale and the white fly (where citrus fruit is grown); also look for the cattle tick.

The pupils should study and report on fungus diseases. Note the appearance of affected parts, the character of the damage done, and methods of combating. Look for tomato blight, potato blight, potato scab, apple scab, apple black rot, apple bitter rot, sooty mold of citrus fruit and shrubs, fire blight of apple, pear, and quince, cotton boll rot, and corn smut. (See Farmers’ Buls. 243 and 440.)

Correlations.—Keeping records of studies with birds, mammals, isects, and fungus diseases and describing the damage done by insects and fungi furnish ample material for written work. Best records and descriptions should be given places in class notebooks. (See Pl. ITI.)

Drawings should be made showing the different stages of the life history of insects, the damage done to plants attacked by them, and the appearance of fungus diseases on plant parts attacked by them.

These studies may be correlated with geography by making a map of the school district showing the places in which damage is done by insects and fungi. This map should be preserved to be filled in with the results of the studies in the other schocl months.

Noting the insects and fungi that are native and those that have been introduced, recording the dates of introduction in the case of those that have been introduced, and writing accounts of damage done in each case are suitable for correlation with history.


Problems based on estimates of imsects destroyed by different birds studied, and on the damage done by insects and fungi to the garden, field, and fruit crops of the community can be used to sup- plement the work im arithmetic.



Renew the work of September. Assigned work.—What garden crops are being planted this month— fall radishes, spinach, onions? (1) Do you plant radish seed in rows or on a bed? (2) What portion of the radish is eaten? (3) Do you plant spinach seed in rows, on bed, or broadcast? (4) What portion of the plant is eaten? (5) From what are fali-planted onions grown—seed, bulb, set? (6) Are onions planted in rows, on beds, or both? (7) What part of the plant is eaten? Answer similar questions for other garden crops being planted at this time. |

(1) Are early-planted turnips and fall potatoes ready for use? (2) Bring specimens to school if none are in the school garden.

Practical work.—Get some boxes and fill in a thick layer of small stones or cinders, on top of this place a thick layer of loam or leaf mold, on this a layer of clean sand. Set in the sand hyacinth bulbs 3 inches apart each way. Cover the bulbs with a layer of mold, leaving only the tops exposed. Cover with straw or an old sack. Keep in a cool place and water occasionally. After four to six weeks remove the straw or sack, keep in a warm place exposed to morning sun. Water and watch growth.

Continue to care for the school or home garden plats.

Correlations.—Language: Require pupils to relate the story as to preparing and planting hyacinths; also relate their experiences in their garden plats. These narrations should be reduced to writing. _

Drawing: Make drawings of sweet potatoes, Irish potatoes, and turnips. Outline turnip and Irish potato leaves.


Rewew the September bird studies. All of the birds suggested for that month have not migrated yet. Become familiar with their habits before they leave.

Assigned work.—(1) Be on the lookout for new birds—(a) winter residents, those that spend the winter; (b) transients, those that are en route to warmer climate. (2) Note the disappearance of any of the summer residents; some will be leaving the latter part of October.

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(3) The following birds are permanent residents: Flcker or yellow hammer, bobwhite, cardinal or redbird, dove, tufted titmouse, screech owl, wild turkey, American crow, red-eyed vireo, white-breasted nuthatch, house wren, brown thrasher, song sparrow, chipping sparrow, English sparrow, barn owl, red-tailed hawk, blue darter (hawk), killdeer. (4) Select two or three of these for study this month. Follow this outiue .. vidying them and making records:

(1) What is eaten this month?

(2) Roosting place?

(3) Color of parts—head, breast, wings, back, tail?

(4) Hop, run, or both?

(5) Character of song—imiiate.

Practical work.—Trips to the places frequented by these birds are necessary. Make records of observations as suggested in the fore- going paragraph and copy in the class notebook.

Correlations. —Language lessons are provided by making records of observations. These notes should form the basis of oral narrations.

Drawing: Make sketches of birds studiea.

Reading: Read to the class stories of the bobwhite and other birds studied this month, found in Farmers’ Buls. 54 and 630.



Review the work of the preceding month. If the school term did not begin in September take up as much of the work outlined for that month as is practicable and connect it with the work in October.

Forest trees are putting on gay colors and are dropping nuts this month. Take advantage of those attractive features to familiarize the members of the class with the names of such plants. Note the general appearance of these trees and such particular features as bark, leaves, and nuts. Third-grade pupils should become familiar with the appearance of all field crops that are maturing seed. Are there any members of the class who do not know at sight the plants and seed of corn, cotton, peas, chufas, soy beans, velvet beans, peanuts, and sorghum ?

Assigned work.—Have pupils report to class the names of garden crops that are being planted at the homes. Onions? How are such crops planted—in rows, in beds, broadcast? When are such crops expected to be ready for use? What parts—root, stem, seed—are _used for food? What paris planted ?

What fall garden or truck crops are ready for use or 6 be harvested this month—Irish potatces, sweet potatoes, parsnips, others? How and where grown? What parts of the plants are used for food ?


Are there any wild flowers or weeds blooming or maturing seed by the roadside or in the field, orchard, pasture, or garden this month ? _ Answer the followmg questions and record in the class notebook: Name? Where found? Kind of blossom, if any? Appearance of seed? How scattered—by wind, by animals, by birds, by water or by being attached to clothing of people or skins of animals? Which are harmful? Which useful? Keep accurate records of all plants named and studied. Any flowers or weeds you are unable to recog- nize pack securely and mail to the State college of agriculture with the following letter:


I am sending to you by this mail securely packed a plant found by pupils of my

school. Kindly give us thename, and state whether it is troublesome or useful. Very truly, yours,

Practical exercises.—Select and mount garden seeds, wild flower and weed seeds maturing this month. (For instructions see Farmers’ Bul. 586.)

Piant fall onions in the home or school plats. Care for the young plants in the garden and observe their parts—roots, stems, leaves. (See planting table in Appendix.) .

Correlations. —Language lessons: Short written narrations and de- .

scriptions are features of practical exercises covering such points as where seeds were found, method of scattering, and general appear- ance. Garden notes form the basis for short written stories.

Drawing: Make drawings of the wild flowers and wild seeds studied this month. Sketches showing the parts of young garden plants should be made.


Review.—Continue the work of learning at sight the names of all kinds of domestic and wild animals and birds. Keep a record of the birds that leave this month. Some few will seek a warmer climate. Be on the alert for the arrival of new birds. These are of two kinds— those on their way south and those that come to spend the winter. Do they travel in flocks or alone? What do they eat? Among the transients look for the ruby-crowned kinglet and the hermit thrush. Among the winter residents look for yellow-bellied sapsucker, downy woodpecker, purple finch, and phoebe. (See Farmers’ Buls. 54 and 630.)

Continue the study of the use of feathers on the different parts of the body—shedding water, warmth, flying, balancing im air and on perches, propping on trees.

New work assigned.—The cow is one of the most useful animals and should be given the very best treatment. Study the cow this month to be able to answer the following questions:


(1) In what way is the cow useful? (2) What things does she like to eat? (3) How does she get food into her mouth? (4) Has the cow upper front teeth? (5) What takes the place of the upper front teeth? Crackled pad. (6) How does the lower jaw move in chewing? (7) Examine the lower front teeth of the cow. Do they seem loose? Can you find a reason? (8) Does the cow stop to chew grass as she grazes? (9) What is the cow’s cud? (10) Have cows as many toes as people? (11) How many true toes has the cow? (12) How many useless toes has the cow? (13) How are the toes of the cow protected? (14) What means of defense has the cow? (15) Does the cow get up on her hind legs or front legs first? (16) How do you call your cow? Imitate.

What wild mammals are destroying or damaging garden or field crops this month? Does the damage done justify their extermina- tion? Are they useful for game ?

Practical exercises.—Watching for the coming of new birds, record- ing the disappearance of the summer residents and studying the cow at home with the view of answering the questions suggested in the foregoing outline will keep pupils busy and interested. All facts learned should be recorded in the class notebook.

Correlations.—Language lessons: Ample written work is provided in keeping records for the month.

Drawing: Make drawings of the cow’s foot, ear, horn.



Rewew.—Continue population studies and review the work for September.

New’ work assigned.—Are any of the farmers of the community planting oats, wheat, rye, or clover this month? How planted—in rows. or broadcast? Can the pupils tell why these crops are planted in the fall? What are the uses of these crops? When should they be ready for use, if planted now ?

What field crops and domestic and wild shrubs are maturing seed and ripening fruit this month? Corn? Cowpeas? Peanuts? Chufas ? Soy beans?) Pumpkins? Red haws or “‘thorn berries?’’ In case of the field crops, when was each planted? From what part of the plant grown? How planted—in rows or broadcast? How are the different parts of each plant—root, leaves, seed—used? If left alone, how would each kind propagate itself? In case of domestic or wild shrubs, what are the uses of the different parts of the plant? If a domestic plant, how is it propagated—tfrom seed, cuttings, or grafts ?


Practical work.—List ali plants studied and record the facts indi- | cated in the above questions in class notebook.

Collect seed from the different fieid crops and mount and label. Seeds or fruits of shrubs should be collected, mounted, and labeled. In case