Compilation © 1993 University Publications of America All rights reserved.

Vfcoru tap&tA

A SELECTIVE MICROFILM EDITION

PART III (1887-1898)

Thomas E. Jeffrey Microfilm Editor

Gregory Field Theresa M. Collins David W. Hutchings Lisa Gitclman Leonard DcGraaf Dennis D. Madden

Mary Ann Hellrigel Paul B. Israel Robert A. Rosenberg Karen A. Detig Gregory Jahkunls Douglas G. Tarr

Reese V. Jenkins Director and Editor

Sponsors

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey National Park Service, Edison National Historic Site New Jersey Historical Commission Smithsonian Institution

University Publications of America Bcthesda, Maryland

Rutgers, The State Unh endorsed by

National Historical Publications and 1 18 June 1981

Copyright © 1993 by Rutgers, The All rights reserved. No part of this publication including any portic be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in mechanical, or chemical, including photocopying, recording 01 systems— without written permission of Rutgers, The State Univetsii The original documents in this edition are from the archives at tl New Jersey.

ISBN 0-89093-702-S

THOMAS A. EDISON PAPERS

Reese V. Jenkins Director and Editor

Thomas E. Jeffrey Associate Director and Microfilm Editor

Robert A. Rosenberg Managing Editor, Book Edition

Helen Endlck

Assistant Director for Administration

Associate Editor Paul B. Israel

Research Associates Theresa M. Collins David W. Hutchings Karen A. Detig

Assistant Editors Keith A. Nier Gregory Field Lisa Gitelman Martha J. King

Secretary

Grace Kurkowski

Intern Student Assistant

Gregory Jankunls Bethany Jankunls

BOARD OF SPONSORS

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

Francis L. Lawrence Joseph J. Seneca Richard F. Foley Rudolph M. Bell

New Jersey Historical Commission Howard L. Green

National Park Service John Maounis Maryanne Gerbauckas Nancy Waters George Tselos Smithsonian Institution Bernard Finn Arthur P. Molella

EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD

James Brittain, Georgia Institute of Technology Alfred D. Chandler, Jr., Harvard University Neil Harris, University of Chicago Thomas Parke Hughes, University of Pennsylvania Arthur Link, Princeton University Nathan Reingold, Smithsonian Institution Robert E. Schofield, Iowa State University

CORPORATE ASSOCIATES

William C. Hittinger (Chairman), RCA Corporation Edward J. Bloustein, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey * Cees Bruynes, North American Philips Corporation Paul J. Christiansen, Charles Edison Fund Philip F. Dietz, Wcstinghouse Electric Corporation Roland W. Schmitt, General Electric Corporation Harold W. Sonn, Public Service Electric and Gas Company Morris Tanenbaum, AT&T

•Deceased.

FINANCIAL CONTRIBUTORS

PRIVATE FOUNDATIONS

The Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Charles Edison Fund The Hyde and Watson Foundation Geraldine R. Dodge Foundation

PUBLIC FOUNDATIONS

National Science Foundation National Endowment for the Humanities National Historical Publications and Records Commission

PRIVATE CORPORATIONS AND INDIVIDUALS

Alabama Power Company Amerada Hess Corporation Anonymous AT&T

Atlantic Electric

Association of Edison Illuminating Companies, Inc.

Battelle Memorial Institute The Boston Edison Foundation Cabot Corporation Foundation, Inc. Carolina Power & Light Company Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc.

Consumers Power Company Coming Glass Works Foundation Duke Power Company Entergy Corporation (Middle South Electric Systems)

Exxon Corporation Florida Power & Light Company General Electric Foundation Gould Inc. Foundation Gulf States Utilities Company Idaho Power Company International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers

Iowa Power and Light Company

Mr. and Mrs. Stanley H. Katz Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. McGraw-Edison Company Minnesota Power New Jersey Bell New York State Electric & Gas Corporation

North American Philips Corporation

Philips International B.V.

Public Service Electric and Gas Company RCA Corporation Robert Bosch GmbH Rochester Gas and Electric Corporation

San Diego Gas & Electric Savannah Electric and Power Company Schering-Plough Foundation Texas Utilities Company Thomas & Betts Corporation Thomson Grand Public Transamerica Delava! Inc. Westinghouse Educational Foundation Wisconsin Public Service Corporation

A Note on the Sources

The pages which have been filmed are the best copies available. Every technical effort possible has been made to ensure legibility.

PUBLICATION AND MICROFILM COPYING RESTRICTIONS

R66l duplication of the whole or of any part of this film is prohibited. In lieu of transcripts, however, enlarged photocopies of selected items contained on these reels may be made in order to facilitate research.

SPECIAL COLLECTIONS SERIES

There are a variety of special collections in the archives of the Edison National Historic Site, ranging from single items to substantial groups of personal papers. Three collections have been microfilmed in Part III: (1) J. H. Vail Papers; (2) Walter S. Malloiy Papers; (3) Alexander Elliott, Jr., Papers. Although most of the documents in each collection were generated during the period 1887-1898, some of the microfilmed items precede or follow that period.

J. H. Vail Papers

These papers cover the period 1885-1888, with one item from 1900. They relate primarily to Vail’s work as general superintendent of the Edison Electric Light Co., in which position he oversaw the design and construction of central stations.

Walter S. Mallory Papers

These papers coyer the period 1888-1903. They relate primarily to Mallory’s personal business, his family and friends, and his private affairs. Some material pertains to his work for the Edison Iron Concentrating Co., the Edison Portland Cement Co., the Edison Storage Batteiy Co., the New Jersey and Pennsylvania Concentrating Works, and other companies associated with Edison.

Alexander Elliott, Jr., Papers

These papers cover the period 1880-1905. They relate primarily to Elliott’s administration of the real estate interests of the New Jersey and Penn¬ sylvania Concentrating Works. There are also documents pertaining to Elliott’s work as counsel for the Edison Portland Cement Co. and other companies associated with Edison, as well as items concerning his private law practice.

J. H. VAIL PAPERS

The J. H. Vail Papers cover the period 1885-1888, with one item from 1900. The papers relate primarily to Vail’s work as general superintendent of the Edison Electric Light Co., in which position he oversaw the design and construction of central stations. The items consist mainly of correspondence among Vail, Edison, and Edward H. Johnson regarding lamps, dynamos, and the technical and commercial development of central stations. Included is a copy of a memorandum from Edison to Johnson noting the advantages of alternating over direct current systems. There is also an Electrical Review article by Vail comparing the state of electric power technology in 1880 and 1900.

All of the documents have been filmed.

The Edison Company for Isolated Lighting

New York, . J.uly...23r.d.,... .1886.1 88

J. H. Vail, flsq. Gen. Supt.

Bity.

Dear S.ir:-

A meeting of the Committee on Uptown Station will bo held at the office of this Oompany, Room 32, 16 and 18 Broad street, on Monday, July 26th. 1886, at one o'clock P. M. to dis¬ cuss engines and boilers.

You are earnestly requested to bo present, very truly yours.

The Edison Company for Isolated Lighting

!65^FiHli:rAve'rite,

1C. & 11! Broiiil Si.

New York, August. 2nd.»....1886....1 88

J. H. Vail, Esq. Gen. Supt.

Gity.

Dear Sir:- »

A meeting of the Committee on Uptovm Station will be hold at the office of this Oompany, Room 32, 16 and 18 Broad street, on Wednesday, August 4th. 1886, at 11 o'clock A. M. to discuss engines and boilers.

You are earnestly requested to be present.

Very truly yours.

/f:^ 7-7

KOTOS OH 3I3TSIBPTI0H 0? AI.TORMTOKO CQBTOST.

1886. fir /A >>

A tsCsgL&ij

Reverse current machines (losa 25^) must have con¬ tinuous current Dynamo charge field, and as iron in field ie small in quantity, a very considerable amount of power is required so that commercial efficiency cannot be greater than ?C$.

Reversing the polarity of many tons of oopper in high and low tension wire causes a loss of perhaps _

Doss by static charge of high tension quite small, but in distributing circuits where wire is along and close to walls as in inside wiring it is a large factor, on 1600 It plant at least _ _ _ _

If conductors aro underground

Doss due to oonvertor say Doss on distributing mains Dose on high tension wire -

5/3

5573

875

Total loss

34$

As it is not practical to work a number of small reverse dynamos in mult are, single dynamos muBt be used, hence the necessity of a spare, especially as

owing to high tension of the current it is more liable to cross anfl a short circuit in fatal as its field is made by another machine, ami is not anihilated by a short cir¬ cuit- She damage will be done before a catch can work in most oases unless the machine is extraordinarily well insulated .

Xf a network is to be used, ana convertors bo eubsti- tuted for feeders then there will be groat difference of R M lf at the different points due to drop in the converter. Ihia you will understand when we consider a converter a dyDamo. Shore is a drop of 1? IS F between full load and light load. Tho distribution will have to he made in this case on two wire system, requiring <SS% mors copper, as the amount of coppor in distributing mains must, necessarily bo great, bo that there shall bo only P. or 3? difference be¬ tween the volts on lamps. This <>32 in a large factor com¬ pared to feeders when 152 or even any p-o mokes no dif* ferenoe between the lamps IT feeders are regulated. If double oonvertorn are used with 3 wire system this will be saved, but they will infringe our patent.

Xf the convertors ore regulated at the points where they are plaocd, it would require too many people. If the converters ore all placed at one Central Station, then they must use feeders, and regulate them, thus again In¬ fringing our patent.

•>i they do not use a network but carry thn High tension circuit all over town, putting on convertors of various bIbos to every consumer's place they must work them in mult arc and If this Ip, thn capo the efficiency of the converter will be greatly diminished. Tho total ronint- anoe wilt be low no ns to necessitate vary large wireB from the dip tent station.

Th* flrop botTO®n thR flrnt and last converter would be great. If they attempt to obviate this loan by in¬ creasing the volte from, say. ."000 to 4000 tho wires on the converter must bn 4 timoB emaller and must cost at leant 10 times as much as fine sizes increase greatly in cost. The Insulation must be greater, hence greater removal of the wire from the indue tivo ooro and lesn ef¬ ficiency - again 3000 volt convertor to say nothing of 4000 in every consumer's nlnoo la not pleasant.

In a 1500 light plant, there must be several feeders, hence covers! converters - These must be placed somewhere and parti an will undoubtedly oxaot something for the privilege as they munt be at definite points.

She positive wave going through a lamp must bo, if it was this shape 100 volts in 100 volt lamp,

tho negative wave 100 volts tho other way making 800 volts difference potential but as the wave can not start instantly and Btop Instantly it must bo thus

thus it will require 130 volts or the mahouts to uroduoe the equivalent of 100, than we have .for shooting purposes a reversed intermitting current of unlimited amperes as far ar the body in conoornod (i) and a difforonoe of 360- volts it will certainly he unpleasant.

It will ho difficult to get a practical meter ns chemical meters oannot he used.

If Cana agon! states that the convertor costs 53.00 per lamp then it. is equal to cost of on r dynamo - Our 500 light ic 11500 I think.

How having 443 Iobr suppose we get the power for noth¬ ing, then this loss docs not count agninBt the (system.

But supposing they got the power for nothing ( i e) the water or coal let ua see how the investment and running oxpcnsoK are.

Th« dynamo nt distant Stations will cost more as they must have double capacity in 1000 it Stations and 1/3 more in 3300 It Stations, and os 1800 and 3300 It Stations will probably be tho only places where the conditions will he favorable if they have two dynamos and a space thoy will have to araot two circuits - If they use coal, the boilers, pumps, heaters etc., will hove to be larger.

/

Dio cost of converters will be equal to the cost of our dynamos. The amount of copper in the distributing mins will he 03* more, hut there will he at- lenst 3'S drop duo to revers¬ ing and static effects so this must he doubled again, if it is rot doubled the lamp breakage will ho a largo item. They must have someone in the town to reflate the £ M F 80 their labor will ho equal to ours.

if they only put the system in and take only the largest o on Humors put a converter on the premises, no regulators or mains arc nooesaary, the house wiring will only need to he 4 times heavier; hut they mist neglect the general public if they do so, we can coroe in, taking the general public, planing our feeders near large consumers and make it Impossible for $hei>i to compete even if we pay 54 for coal.

TJ10 patent that 1 have that Batch has worked up obviates all the defects ana losses of the other system and there arc many planet? where it may bo wood to advantage.

Tho f ac t of the matter is that the moment Capital has confidence and will furnish unlimited capital if they can make on it wo will think no more of putting in BbO,OQQ Feeders than the F.H.B. done of spending 5100,000 to straighten n curve, that will save 55000 a year, and all systems with their makeshift!* will make way for the plain diroot system.

You will notice that X give no loss due to induction from one side of circuit to the other us there ia none, it simply seems to lower the H JJ F, but it is the induction which would go in a parallel wire having no connection with the induotion cirouit and the surrounding matter - houses, trees, earth, wall etc. This is all lost as Heat. '.Thy the converter itself is a oase in point - look at the tremendous amount of energy that jumps from one oircuit to the other - This is lost in the second circuit as heat and light, hut is of course useful. The wires are close together it is true but so are the walls of a building in the house wiring, and energy can be lost just as well by static S as Dynamic.

The more I study our converter business, the more satis¬ fied I am that we shall he able to give Westinghouse all the law he wants on this particular eubjoot or any other.

Do you know that the Dynamo Batch made for transforming is a very perfect contrivance, in fact it is perfection. I will bet any amount that you oan put several on our cirouit, using three wires to distribute low current and they will run for months without requiring attention.

At first thought the revolution of the armature and employment of brushes would boero to be a bad thing as com¬ pared to the Zip coverter - There is nothing in this. You know the Zip convsrter makes a great noise owing to molecular

movement of the iron whioh is fully as great as the noise of our revolving converter which runs very smooth, there being no belt ana no strain on shaft the bearings flon't heat - Again having double coils there is no spark. hence the brushes are put in a fixed position. You know if there is no Bpark and the brushes are fixed, the commutator v/ill last for years, and require no attention - An the converters start up when station starts. Any regulation at station regulates converters per¬ fectly, in fact they can be boxed up, only giving convenience for filling oiler etc.

But hare comes the new point, we run a 400 ampere machine at 800. Dow there ia not the slightest trouble in running armature alone 1600, therefore at 800 Revs it will oonvert 425 amperes - I suppose you know that it will transfer more than it will run as a dynamo then by reducing the resiB. of the armature and running it at 1600 revolutions you can transfer 850 amperes on a 400 ampere machine without any strain for belt etc., in fact do it beautifully 850 ampB or 1130 .75

amp lamps or 1700 of new lamps . As Batoh oan probably make them for 5150 extra, you have cost for converter for 1.4R per lamp of .75 amp. (present lamp) or 97*5 per lamp (new).

Yhus we can oonvert for half price, use straight currents and distribute on 3 wire system using 8 converters in aeries together.

Just as certain as death Westinghouse will kill a customer within 6 months after he puts in a system of any Bice - He has

got a now thing, and it. will require a great deal of experi¬ menting to get it working praotioally. It will never ho free from danger, and there ie no oondition where we oant go in and make a hig dividend where he would lose.

Hone of his plans worry me in the least, only one thing that disturbs mo is the fact that Meetinghouse ia a great man for flooding the country with agents and travellers.

He is ubiquitous and will form innumerable companies before we know anything about it.

Mr. Wither telle me they employ 30 General Agents ana have 1500 local Agents, and do a business of *3,500,000 a year.

Hutch is going along in the old way employing one agent for a territory that he couldn't visit each factory in 30 years.

I'm making 1400 lamps for Tan 17 per HP.

You are dead onto it - when it comes down to dollars and oents, and practicability (i e) constant currents, nothing that anyone else oould possibly do oould tonoh us in the least.

The reason our converter has no spark is that as a dynamo the field is distorted in one direction and you have to sot your brushes in that direction - But as a motor the distortion is in the opposite direction and you should set your brushes in that direction. Moral - The brush stands still at all loads

and no 9park. Ag there 1b no strain or spark hut merely a spindlo revolving doubling the speed over that of a dyiiamo is nothing,- in faot they will run beautifully and never give any trouble, thus a 400 amp. dynamo becomes an 800 amp. converter (i e) Any dynamo if rewound and speed doubled will supply twice ub many lamps as it would as a dynamo. This seems funny - ffor instance - One 400 amp dynamo if run at 1700 revs, and wound lower resistance so that volte would be same at 1700 as it is now with 85t' would run 800 anperoe hut the strain on belt and bear¬ ings and the spark eto., would make it unreliable - the defects which limit youj in the case of dynnmoe are absent when double would and lined solely for converting, - Catch on?

% impression is that excopt in very difficult places we shouldn’t use over 1800 volts. This reduces the oopper down so that it will be telegraphic in else - We must look out for crosses and such things for if we ever kill a customer it would be a bad blow to the business - When we must use from 3000 to 5000 volte suoh as lighting Buffalo from Eiagara Falls - I should not wind double, hut have motors run dynamos, but 1800 volts continuous ourrent will never ao greater harm than blister the flesh, and I’ll bet any amount that 1000 volts alternate ourrent will kill certain.

Why Sip uses 8000 volts alternate - This given a difference of 4000 volts (!) (HOLY HOSKS) and as it is not continuous he has to have to get a mean which gives 6000 volts dif.

-10-

Supposc vr. uses 2000 ana one leg gets crossed, the first man that touolies a wire in a wet place is a dead man.

Tho’/ may use groat insulation on their convertors, hut if they do - their capacity and economy will diminish as the sq. of the insulation (ie) The wires get farther away from the oore

I'm glad you've onught on to this - to my mind we still oontrol the bis with the only continuous convertor system high economy - no danger. Economy of distribution system wire and the fourth = Coming high economy and Res. Lamps and a perfected system - ana a converter which costs far less than any other and about 955? effioioncy.

Speaking of efficiency of converter - catch on to this; - Teat at Franklin ^nst. , shows, if I remember right, 95& effioienofr. 915? commercial leaving out fraction aue to load (i e) strain on bearings due to belt - Bow the reason we do not got 100 (leaving out shaft friction) was that there are faueault currents in iron arm. and greatest of all short circuiting of coils by brush even when set at the non-sparking point.

Experiment has shown by running armature without brushes and taking temp, that not more than 15? is lost as faueault cur¬ rents, hence 4# was lost by short circuiting between commutator blocks due to brush - this is gained in the converter and also

does not heat armature. This gives 9955 and as we aro going to double speed converting twice as much, the fauoault currents will be 8$ using very thin plates - leaving 9855.

And as the difference between 95 and 91 commercial was 4% it will only now with double speed and load be 2$, hence 100 - p, lost as Fauoault (s in armature for old load) gives 96$. She mere friotion due to weight of rovlving arm., and soaroely any¬ thing - its a more fly wheel and one man could turn half a dozen (III) I don't think that more than of H.P. would be absorbed -

Its the strain on bearings due to load that causes ordinary dyna. to show loss of 1 to 8 H.P. in friction.

How starting with a 91$ dynamo - then 96$ of 91$ is 1 think 87 1/8$ say then is an extra 8-1/8$ loss besides in converter - then we get 85$

Memo. The volts of our oonverter remain at their highest point and are not diminished by the necessity of advancing brushes due to load - henoe vary low internal reels, to got volts.

We can run an interlaced high volt P, wire main all over a oity and at oonvenient parts cut in pressure stations &o. The initial cost of these interlaced mains would not be very groat then stations could be started from time to time. The fact is I’m getting enthusiastic 6n this new plan. The double convert¬ ing power of a dynamo and its perfection and economy as a oon¬ verter is the point that makes the system a suocess - There would

-18-

be very littlo danger to our men In repairing a P.000 volt oonst - high pressure main, for even if they did got it, it would not produce death, but 1 cannot for the life of me Bee how alternate current high pressure mains - which in large oitien can never stop/ could be repaired.

Hote:- The larger the dynamo the better for con¬ verting. The only thing that limits it is the oentrifugal foreo tending to throw the wire off the arm. tThen there is no current to hoi hold it on - The larger the •'diameter of arm - the lens this is - for instance - a pound weight on the surfaoe of the earth, which revolveB, has scarcely any energy to oeuse it to leave the earth becauBe while it goes round it is nearly a straight line owing to enormous diam»*, but you put that pound weiaht on a 10 in. arm. , it has to change from a straight line twenty time a a second - for the same pound on the earth while it travels infinitely faster only changes its di¬ rection onoo in twenty- four hours, so that on a gOO amp machine the oentrifugal energy would “he very much greater than on a 400 ampere both having the some eurfaoe velocity. There is not the slightest difficulty in making a 55000 Lt - (l/8 amp) converter and the price per Lt would be way down.

Bote:- You roust remember that economy by going to water edge only means saving in boilers and coal expenses. It don’t save on engines, dyfaamos & converters which is the principal investment; for the great diminution in investment we must look to lamps, an im¬ provement 6f 50% in economy InropB eaves coal, but this is a mere flea bite oompared to the fact that we use 50% Issb dynamos, converters, wire, real estate, boilers etc. The more saving of coal would not pay i/r% on the saving in investment.

This investment with the water station earns 15 ana 9.0% then what does the coal amountto? X bio fully alive) now that we have a good workable system, that even the gains duo to our system is nothing tie compared to a lamp that is 50$ more eoonomioali She ooal it saves is a Bum so insignificant as to he no factor when we consider the immensely reduced interest account. Hot only have we an infinitely better, and tho ultimata system to heat com¬ petitors hut it is in the lamps that I hope to make it positively impose ihle for them to exiBt in Central station work to say nothing of Isolated.

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T. A. Edison, Esq., . , 0 .

Care, .Edison Lamp Co.,

.East Newark, N.

Dear Sir:-

Ref erring to the dif f iculti es^ich are experienced^in the blackening of the lamp globes, it has occurred to me to sug¬ gest that the globes of the lamps might be made . somewhat larger than they now are, with good results as to less blackenings

If we have a globe of a certain size with the carbon inserted therein, are exposed to the d^fei^n of carbon a certain pumber of square inches of the- interior .surface of the globe; consequently, within a certain, length of time, the smut '

on the glbbe'%ill reach a- certain thickness which cuts down .the: .'"-4. candle power of the ..lamp to a specified amount. Now then, if we put the same carbon under the same conditions in a larger globe, there is more surface to be covered by the smut, arid it consequent¬ ly will not reduce the candle power so rapidly.

This is simply offered as a suggestion.

Yours truly

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and from all information I could gather it seems to be a very pro¬ mising machine.

Is there no way in which we can more rapidly urge forward the completion and testing of this machine ?

It is of much importance to our business, and if 0. K. could be incorporated for new central station work.

I also have in mind the advisability of making a new departure in the line of steam engines of the compound type,

In order to get the advantage of all the ideas of the different builders of high speed engines, I have thought it would be a good plan to send out a circular to the manufacturers asking them to submit for our consideration plans and specifications for compound engines of horizontal and vertical types, ' together with”' their arguments in favor of^ or against their application in central station work. ;

Will you kindly advise me what you think of these mat¬ ters, and indicate your views as to how I best proceed. .y

August 20, 1900

ELECTRICAL REVIEW

THE OROWTH OF THE EDISON CENTRAL STATION BUSINESS.

; To those who willpnuse from tho in- tonso pressure of daily business for a few moments,, and journey bnok to take a retro¬ spective view at Menlo Park in 1880, it will bo again to marvel and ponder at tho wonderful genius and foresight of Thomas A. Edison in formulating at that place, and demonstrating by practical operation, tho fundamental principles which have been, and to-day are, the basis of a com¬ mercial business, the success of which is without parallel.

Twenty years ago, in the Fall of 1880, the writer had (what lie now considers to hnvo been a privilege of inestimable value) ehargeof the operationof 13of the original bi-polar dynamos in the old Menlo Park laboratory, and these dynamos generated current which was transmitted through a system of distributing conductors, par- tinlly erected overhead and partially laid underground. Electric current was deliv¬ ered to some 500 or GOO incandescent lamps for street and house lighting.

This served ns the original central sta¬ tion,, distributing current for house to house lighting, all lamps being main¬ tained at practically the same poten¬ tial, and each individual lamp being under the control of the user. Electric motive power was also supplied for driving ma¬ chinery.

To-day the incandescent light, used in unnumbered millions throughout the civ¬ ilized world, serves almost every pur¬ pose for which artificial light is required, and the electric motor is the most eco¬ nomical source of power for many indus¬ trial purposes.

At the same place in January, 1881, wns tested the first direct-connected gen¬ erator driven by a Porter-Alien engine at 650 revolutions per minute. This was the forerunner of the splendid engine- driven multipolar generators of the pres¬ ent day.

From the practical standpoint, scien¬ tific engineering and mechanical devel¬ opment in the perfection of design and construction have in combination emi¬ nently contributed to make possible the great commercial success of the numerous Edison illuminating companies.

In the absence of good engineering and perfect mechanical construction in detail, tho financier could not have demonstrated the commercial value of electric lighting.

An innumerable host of details would be required to describe the steps of ad¬ vancement, but wo can select a few salient

points that will sot forth tho loading characteristics.

Dynamos— The bi-polar dynamo origi- nnlly developed in Menlo Park nobly did tho work demanded from it and proved to bo tho initial machine of its typo. The rapid demand for dynamos of larger ca¬ pacity first led to tho doubling up of tho field magnets of this stylo of machine nnd a lengthening of the armature. These types of machines were known ns tho Z, 000-light capacity, nnd the L, 150-light capacity, nnd the Iv, 300-light enpneity. Tlie next design of bi-polar dynamos had the magnet cores of reduced length nnd' enlarged diameter, but the multiple poles in some instances were followed. These soon gave plnce to the Inter types of ma¬ chines which are the models of the bi-po- lnr generators of tho present date.

In 1887 the New York stations in Twenty-sixth and Thirty-ninth streets were designed. The largest bi-polar dy¬ namos that could then be obtained were No. 20, having a capacity of GO kilowatts. . This was followed by a still larger size up to 1889; nnd in